The main aim of this study was to assess psychological, economic, and social impact of khat chewing among adolescents, in Nekemte town, East Welega Zone.
A community based cross-sectional study was conducted from March to June using both quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection. A total of samples were included in the study. A pretested, interviewer based structured questionnaire was employed during data collection. The study found the current prevalence of khat chewing practices was Perceived psychological problems especially depression and anxiety were associated with khat chewing practices.
The risk of depression was about 25 times higher among khat chewers compared to nonchewers. Similarly the risk of anxiety among khat chewers was about 5 times higher compared to nonchewers.
Generally current khat chewing practices in the study area are relatively high. The occurrence of reported, perceived psychological problems mainly depression and anxiety was significantly higher among khat chewers compared to nonchewers.
Thus efforts like creating awareness about negative effect, making different recreation methods available, and formulating common conventions regarding khat use mainly by young generations are necessary to decrease the magnitude of chewing practices and thereby its associated consequences. Khat Catha edulis Forssk. It is mainly cultivated in East Africa and the Arabian Peninsula.Alcolock texas
Ethiopia is thought to be the origin of khat and currently it is consumed everywhere in the country mainly by youths [ 3 ]. Similarly other studies show the prevalence of khat use in Ethiopian out school and in school adolescents was The study conducted among college students in North West Ethiopia also showed the current prevalence of khat chewing was Similarly, institution based cross-sectional study conducted among college students in Bahir Dar town, Ethiopia, showed the overall prevalence of khat chewing in college students was A community based study conducted in Jimma town, south west Ethiopia, found the khat chewing prevalence of The central stimulant effects of khat are similar to those of amphetamine.
The reason is that the main active ingredient in khat is psychoactive alkaloids called cathinone, an amphetamine-like substance. Chewing of khat has been practiced in many countries for social, psychological and religious reasons [ 1011 ].
In addition, other studies show khat is widely consumed for the purpose of elevating mood, happiness level, confidence, alertness, and thinking ability [ 12 ]. Perceived mental consequences of khat chewing practices include headaches, dizziness, impaired cognitive functioning, fine tremor, insomnia, alertness, dependence, tolerance, and anxiety [ 13 — 15 ].
A study conducted elsewhere revealed that, khat chewing practices were associated with perceived psychological outcomes like sleep disturbance, anxiety, depression and sedation [ 16 ]. Similarly another study also reported that khat chewing practices had been associated with many of the perceived psychological impacts [ 17 ].
In addition several studies have revealed that regular consumption of khat seriously affects the social and economic condition of the user [ 18 — 20 ]. The daily cost of khat may affect household income to fulfill nutritious food, home improvement, education or other family needs and finally leads to financial problem and family breakdown [ 1521 ]. Much time is spent on buying and chewing khat leaves, which affects working hours and time [ 22 ].Hrithik roshan movies download
This causes absenteeism from work, absenteeism from class and poor academic performance of the students [ 23 ], and unemployment. Lastly death rate is significantly higher among khat chewers due to chronic illness such as heart disease and stroke as compared with non-khat-chewers [ 24 ].
Despite this impact of khat chewing practices there is only little community based epidemiological study done in Ethiopia and there has been no any previous study conducted in the current study area. Therefore, the main aim of current study was to determine the level, to identify related factors, and to show perceived psychological, economic, and social impact of khat chewing practices among adolescents and adults in Nekemte town, East Welega Zone, west Ethiopia.
This study was conducted in Nekemte town. Nekemte town is the capital of East Welega Zone.In East Wollega Zone, despite the success in creating considerable number of health facilities, short-age of health personnel, geographical imbalance and increasing attrition is found to be a persistent barrier to the effectiveness of the health system.
However, available data is not rich enough to provide reliable information as to what extent these problems exist in the Zone.
Hence, this study was conducted to assess health workforce density, deployment and attrition in East Wollega Zone. A six years retrospective record review from — was conducted between February 1, and March 30, in eleven randomly selected districts of East Wollega Zone.
Data obtained from records and interviews made with selected resource persons were organized by triangulating quantitatively and qualitatively. Quantitative data was analyzed using SPSS Health workforce deployment rate for the years — ranged from 8.
In contrast, attrition rate for the same period ranged from 2. Attrition rate for the time after decentralization — was nearly two times greater than before decentralization OR, 2. Moreover, attrition rate was nearly three times greater for a high level professional when compared to the lower level OR, 3. Attrition rate for males was two times higher as compared to females OR, 2.
About Factors identified as most likely cause for the lower deployment and higher attritions were budget related constraints, lack of continuing education opportunity and poor career development. The number of health personnel in East Wollega was low both by international standards and relative to the national density.
Moreover, attrition was higher for the time after decentralization process. Hence, measures that seek to increase the size of the health workforce through increased recruitment, higher retention of existing staff and better geographical balance have to be urgently explored.Reverse 4 digit number in c
Health workforce in Africa has been very low and is unable to match the rapidly growing population and needs. Although, bench marking with regard to what should be an adequate health workers density level is difficult, the World Health Report states 2.
The Joint Learning Initiative estimated the average number of health workers in Sub-Saharan Africa to be about one health worker per people compared to more than 10 per people in Norway and Finland 4.
Concerning the density of doctors and nurses, the regional differences are enormous 4. Doctors' density ranges from a high of 6 per 1, in Italy to a low of 0. Nurses and midwives density ranges from 22 per 1, people in Finland to only 0. According to the report of Federal Ministry of Health Ethiopia has a total health workforce of 55, which translates to 0.Show simple item record.
Male sterilisation in sub-Saharan countries including Ethiopia is very much limited due to lots of reasons despite its many advantages than other family planning methods. Quantitative, descriptive cross-sectional research was used to describe level of knowledge and attitude towards vasectomy. Data were collected using structured questionnaire in which a total of respondents, who were selected using non-random purposive sampling technique participated in the study.
The data were analysed using SPSS version Hence the findings revealed the lack of knowledge and low interest on vasectomy among respondents. The concerted effort from all stakeholders and use of multiple strategies to educate the community will raise awareness which in turn improves vasectomy service uptake en dc. Size: 1. Format: PDF. Login Register. View Usage Statistics.
Contact Us Send Feedback. Mavundla, T. Belay Ejeta Awie.
Health Workforce Deployment, Attrition and Density in East Wollega Zone, Western Ethiopia
The concerted effort from all stakeholders and use of multiple strategies to educate the community will raise awareness which in turn improves vasectomy service uptake.Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly.
DOI: Nutrition is a fundamental pillar of human life and its requirement varies with respect to age, gender and during physiological changes such as pregnancy. View via Publisher. Open Access. Save to Library. Create Alert. Launch Research Feed. Share This Paper. Figures, Tables, and Topics from this paper. Figures and Tables.
Citations Publications citing this paper. X AzizHamizah Ismail Medicine Pregnant mothers have limited knowledge and poor dietary diversity practices, but favorable attitude towards nutritional recommendations in rural Ethiopia: evidence from community-based study Taddese Alemu ZerfuSibhatu Biadgilign Medicine BMC Nutrition References Publications referenced by this paper.
Shehab Essential health sector actions to improve maternal nutrition in Africa. Effects of pregnancy on eating attitudes and disorders: a prospective study.
Improving prenatal nutrition in developing countries: strategies, prospects, and challenges. Nestel Medicine The American journal of clinical nutrition Nutritional interventions during pregnancy for the prevention or treatment of maternal morbidity and preterm delivery: an overview of randomized controlled trials.
Nutrition knowledge and body mass index. Maternal nutrition and fetal development. CuddCynthia J. Repositioning nutrition as central to development: a strategy for large-scale action.Due to above normal rains during the first weeks of August, flooding in South Gondar Zone in the Amhara region of Ethiopia has left 2 people dead and many households inundated.
The flooding occurred in Fogera and Libo Kemekem woredas on of August, and is attributable to the overflow of the rivers that are tributaries of the Lake Tana and Blue Nile. Reportedly 25, have been affected, 6, houses have been flooded, 18 schools damaged, and 3, hectares of crop-areas have been covered by water. ECHO, 16 Aug Regions continue to report incidences of flooding which is affecting the lives and livelihood of communities and causing displacement in several woredas.
Findings of the joint rapid assessment in flood affected woredas in Shaballe zone also indicate over 1, HH were displaced and 2,HH affected by flash floods in Kalafo and Mustahil woredas, damaging over 2, hectares of farmland.
OCHA, 15 Sep On 2 October, heavy rainfall in Gambella Town has led to the overflow of Baro River, flooding areas along the river bed The Gambella Region Disaster Prevention, Preparedness and Food Security Agency, in collaboration with international partners, conducted an assessment on 3 October to identify humanitarian needs.
According to the assessment team, at least households 1, people were displaced across five kebeles, and their houses were fully flooded, and their livelihoods destroyed Heavy rains in parts of Somali region and neighboring highlands caused flooding in Kalafo, Mustahil and Bercano woredas Shabelle zone ; Dolo Ado woreda in Liban zone and Cherati woreda in Afder zone.
Flash floods also occurred in Babile Fafan zone and Elweyne Nogob zone. Preliminary reports indicate that 2, households 13, people were affected and households displaced. The majority of the displaced households are in Dolo Ado Town, while the remaining 53 households are in Cherati Town. Homes were destroyed; 1, hectares of cropland flooded and heads of livestock killed from the floods. OCHA, 6 Oct During the month of October, several flood incidences were reported in Afar, Oromia, SNNP and Somali regions displacing thousands and causing loss of property and livelihoods.
Reportedly, somepeople have been displaced across the country, the majoritypeople in Somali region. OCHA, 20 Oct Nationwide, flooding between May and November has affected a total ofhouseholds across nine regions, of whom some 37, households were displaced. Floods have also damaged some 86, hectares of cropland.Download fameye asem to me kabi ma me
OCHA, 15 Dec ECHO, 16 Aug Regions continue to report incidences of flooding which is affecting the lives and livelihood of communities and causing displacement in several woredas. OCHA, 20 Oct Nationwide, flooding between May and November has affected a total ofhouseholds across nine regions, of whom some 37, households were displaced.Nekemte was the capital of the former Welega Provinceand is home to a museum of Wollega Oromo culture.
It is a burial place of Onesimos Nesiba famous Oromo who translated the Bible to Oromo Language for the first time, in collaboration with Aster Ganno. Nekemte is at the center of the road network for south-western Ethiopia. The first major road dates to the early s, with a road that extended from the capital Addis Ababa west through Addis Alemalthough the road was passable only by lorries for the kilometers between Addis Alem and Nekemte.
East Welega Zone
Postal service for this city has been present as early as A branch of the Ethiopian Electric Light and Power Authority began providing electricity to the city by Byphone service extended to the city. Nekemte was formerly overshadowed by nearby Lieka and Bilothe former regional markets.
Nekemte acquired some importance when Bekere Godana and later his son Moroda Bekere made it the capital of their kingdom of Welega in the midth century. Under Mereda's son Kumsa Moroda Gebregziabher Moroda after converting to Christianitythe town continued in its importance as it submitted to Shewan rule. The Russian explorer Alexander Bulatovich visited Nekemte 13 March ; in memoirs he describes its marketplace as "a very lively place and presents a motley mixture of languages, dress, and peoples", and carefully described the paintings in the town's newly constructed Ethiopian Orthodox church.
Construction on a hospital began inand was completed in with Swedish funds as well as contributions from Ras Tafari who later became Emperor Haile Selassie.
It formally opened 16 Februaryalthough it had already been in operation for eight months. The artist Daniel Twafe was born in in or near Nekemte. He studied in the United States in and in Paris in He made more sculptures than paintings and became employed at the National Museum in Addis Ababa.Ghidra ios ipa
Another from in this area was Mamo Tessema, who was born in He was trained at the Handicraft School in the school and went to the US for higher studies in He designed ceramics and also wrote some publications.
By Nekemte had become the most important town in Welega. There were nearly 70 foreign residents before the Italian occupationmostly merchants and missionaries. During the Italian invasionNekemte was bombed by the Italians 5 July ; this included dropping 19 bombs on the recently constructed school complex of the local Swedish mission.
Marone who arrived by air on 14 October and the troops of Colonel Malta who reached the town on 24 October, after having marched by foot and mule for twelve days from Addis Alem, which weakened Ras Imru Haile Selassie 's attempts as Prince Regent to establish a center of resistance at Gore.
After his successful return to Ethiopia, on 20 May Emperor Haile Selassie visited Welega where fighting still continued and where Kebede Tesemma was in charge of the Arbegnoch. When he attempted to visit Nekemte, his party came under artillery fire.Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly.
Across all species, Skin lesions were observed and compared within species, age group, work type and body condition. Few handlers were known to provide water Save to Library.
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Citations Publications citing this paper. OlaifaJoseph Olusegun AyoT.
BhatA. GanaiJ. FarooqGowher Gul SheikhZ. Haq References Publications referenced by this paper. Management and breeding aspects of donkeys around Awassa, Ethiopia. Observation on major welfare problems of equine in Meskan district, Southern Ethiopia. Solomon MekuriaRahmeto Abebe Medicine Socio - economic importance and concentrating on the last decade of the 20 century.
AndersonR. Dennis management of carthorses in the mid rift valley of Equine Veterinary Journal Supplement Socio-economic importance and management of carthorses in the mid Rift Valley of Ethiopia. Farrow Geography Extension Approaches to improving the welfare of working equines.500 OLF Shanee rebels Captured By Ethiopian Millatry
FredK. Assessment of the welfare of working horsesmules and donkeysusing health and behavior parameters. FieldingP. Starkey Preventive veterinary medicine Contributions to Society: Draught and Transport. Pearson Encyclopedia of Animal Science.
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